Why does the letter "K" stand for a strikeout in baseball?
Eleven-year-old Brayton Pestka wants to know.
Henry Chadwick is a little-known baseball pioneer. He was an early journalist with a poetic interest in baseball and is the father of baseball scorekeeping, which is the most perfect record in all of sports: One glance and you know exactly what happened, when it happened and how it happened.
Chadwick expanded a scoring technique developed by colleague M.J. Kelly. Both were sportswriters in New York City in the 1860s.
Yes, the 1860s. That's not a typo.
Chadwick used S for sacrifice and chose K for strikeout. He did so because K is the prominent letter of the word "strike," which was used more frequently than strikeout.
Some scorers use a forward K for a swinging strikeout, a backward K for a batter caught looking.
Chadwick also developed the system used to indicate fielders, like making the pitcher 1, the shortstop 6, and so on; and abbreviations for occurrences in the game, like HR (home run), HBP (hit by pitch) and so on.
Chadwick could write a little, too. He wrote the first hardcover book on baseball, "The Game of Base Ball," in 1868.
Chadwick earned enshrinement in the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1938.
Who invented paper money?
The Romans started using paper money in about 1000 A.D., the same time as the Chinese. You can't carry loose change in a toga, so the Romans needed something new.
Emperor Claudius, notorious for running out of money, passed out IOU notes promising to gladly pay people Tuesday for a hamburger today.
Claudius eventually fled to Spain with the idea for paper money. It's in Barcelona where the world's first true bank notes were printed.
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Chinese paper money was originally called flying money, because it was so light it could blow from one's hand.
As for the New World, in 1690 the Massachusetts Bay Colony issued the first paper money in the colonies which later formed our United States.
The first paper money worth anything in this country appeared in the early 1860s in denominations of $5, $10 and $20. Previous attempts were foiled by counterfeiting and a lack of backing.
What is a papoose?
Papoose is an Algonquian word meaning "child." The English connotation is for a Native American child, but is applied regardless of tribe.
The word is Narragansett in origin. The Narrangsett were an Algonquin-speaking tribe who lived throughout Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Connecticut. The Algonquin are an indigenous people in several tribes bonded by the same language in southeast Canada and the northeast United States.
The term also refers to the cradle board and other carriers used by some American Indians to transport infants.
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